Bacterial NanoCellulose Characterization

Tetsuo Kondo, Przemysław Rytczak, Stanislaw Bielecki

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

23 Citations (Scopus)


This section summarizes analytical techniques that are used to characterize Bacterial NanoCellulose (BNC) and presents common physical, chemical methods enabling for detailed description of properties of the native and modified BNC.To characterize structure (determination of length and width of cellulose fibers and crosslinking of the fibers), most often used methods are electron microscopy (EM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and CRM Confocal (RAMAN microscopy). Other important parameters that characterize BNC are crystallinity and degree of polymerization (DP). Techniques of cellulose crystallinity measurement involve XRD techniques, solid state 13C NMR, IR infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Degree of polymerization can be determined by membrane osmometry, cryoscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, ebullioscopy, and determination of reducing-ends concentration. FTIR spectroscopy, GC/MS method, colorimetric analysis (e.g., the phenol-sulfuric method), SEC chromatography, or HPAEC (high performance anion exchange chromatography) can be used for the quantification of carbohydrate component of BNC. Mechanical properties of native and modified BNC usually involve measurement of Young's modulus, per cent elongation at break, and tensile strength.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBacterial Nanocellulose
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Biotechnology to Bio-Economy
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9780444634665
ISBN (Print)9780444634580
Publication statusPublished - Jul 11 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)


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