G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and β-arrestins have been known as regulators of G protein-coupled receptors. However, it has been recently reported that GRKs and β-arrestins mediate receptor-mediated cellular responses in a G proteinindependent manner. In this scheme, GRKs work as a mediator or a scaffold protein. Among 7 members of the GRK family (GRK1-GRK7), GRK2 is the most extensively studied in vitro and in vivo. GRK2 is involved in cellular migration, insulin signaling, and cardiovascular disease. GRK6 in concert with β-arrestin 2 mediates chemoattractant-stimulated chemotaxis of T and B lymphocytes. GRK5 shuttles between the cytosol and nucleus, and regulates the activities of transcription factors. GRK3 and GRK4 do not seem to have striking effects on cellular responses other than receptor regulation. GRK1 and GRK7 play specific roles in regulation of rhodopsin function. In this review, these newly discovered functions of GRKs are briefly described.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Drug Discovery