Atomically flat planarization of Ge(100), (110), and (111) surfaces in H2 annealing

Tomonori Nishimura, Shoichi Kabuyanagi, Wenfeng Zhang, Choong Hyun Lee, Takeaki Yajima, Kosuke Nagashio, Akira Toriumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


We demonstrate that Ge(100), (110), and (111) Ge surfaces are planarized with atomic level step and terrace structures in H2 annealing. The temperature required for such planarization is different among the three orientations. The step edge structure on the Ge(100) surface is composed of alternate smooth and rough steps (Sa + Sb steps) owing to the (2 × 1) reconstruction on that surface. It is also shown that the terrace widths on the Ge(110) and (111) surfaces are on average controlled by adjusting the off-angle from the respective surface orientation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number051301
JournalApplied Physics Express
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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