Atomically flat germanium (111) surface by hydrogen annealing

T. Nishimura, S. Kabuyanagi, C. H. Lee, T. Yajima, K. Nagashio, A. Toriumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In germanium (Ge) MOSFET technology, surface planarization is a serious concern for mobility enhancement at high carrier density, reliability improvement of gate dielectrics and morphology control for non-planar FETs. In this work, (111)-oriented Ge substrates were annealed at 350-750°C in pure H2 atmosphere, and the surface structure and morphology were analyzed with atomic force microscopy. A step and terrace structure was observed on the surface after the H2 annealing above 500°C. The terrace width is controllable by the off-angle of the initial surface within 0.3° at least. The roughness root mean square (RMS) at 100 × 100 nm on single terrace is ∼0.05 nm which is almost our detection limit, which implies that the single terrace on H2 annealed Ge (111) is atomically flat. Furthermore, even though the initial surface roughness RMS is intentionally increased up to 0.6 nm, atomically flat terrace structure could be obtained by the H2 annealing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-206
Number of pages6
JournalECS Transactions
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Engineering


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