Association between ionized magnesium and postoperative shivering

Tetsuzo Nakayama, Kaoru Umehara, Kazuhiro Shirozu, Makoto Sumie, Yuji Karashima, Midoriko Higashi, Ken Yamaura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Ionized magnesium (iMg) is considered to be the biologically active fraction of circulating total serum Mg (tMg). However, only the relationship between tMg and postoperative shivering has been studied. To our knowledge, hitherto no clinical studies have investigated the association between serum ionized magnesium concentration ([iMg]) and postoperative shivering. Therefore, we aimed to retrospectively examine this association, focusing on hypomagnesemia and depletion of [iMg]. Methods: This retrospective study involved 421 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy under general anesthesia at our center from December 2012 to September 2019. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for the incidence of postoperative shivering. Results: Postoperative shivering developed in 111 out of 421 patients. The post-surgical concentration of [iMg] was significantly associated with postoperative shivering in the non-adjusted model, but not in the multivariable-adjusted model. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, progressive decrease of [iMg] by 0.1 mmol/L significantly increased the risk of postoperative shivering (OR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.02–2.64, p = 0.04). The multivariable-adjusted OR for postoperative shivering was 3.65 (95% CI 1.25–13.55, p = 0.02) in subjects with post-surgical [iMg] less than 0.6 mmol/L and decrease in [iMg] during surgery compared with those with post-surgical [iMg] more than 0.6 mmol/L and constant or increased of [iMg] during surgery. Conclusion: A decrease in the [iMg] during surgery was significantly associated with postoperative shivering. Subjects who had an [iMg] lower than 0.6 mmol/L post-surgery and decreased [iMg] during surgery had a significantly higher risk of postoperative shivering. Intraoperative depletion of [iMg] was significantly associated with shivering.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)412-419
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Anesthesia
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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