Associated Molecular and Atomic Clouds with X-Ray Shell of Superbubble 30 Doradus C in the LMC

Y. Yamane, H. Sano, M. D. Filipović, K. Tokuda, K. Fujii, Y. Babazaki, I. Mitsuishi, T. Inoue, F. Aharonian, T. Inaba, S. Inutsuka, N. Maxted, N. Mizuno, T. Onishi, G. Rowell, K. Tsuge, F. Voisin, S. Yoshiike, T. Fukuda, A. KawamuraA. Bamba, K. Tachihara, Y. Fukui

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3 Citations (Scopus)


30 Doradus C is a superbubble that emits the brightest non-thermal X- and TeV gamma-rays in the Local Group. To explore the detailed connection between the high-energy radiation and the interstellar medium, we have carried out new CO and Hi observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, and the Australia Telescope Compact Array with resolutions of up to 3 pc. The ALMA data of 12CO(J = 1-0) emission revealed 23 molecular clouds, with typical diameters of ∼6-12 pc and masses of ∼600-10,000 M o˙. A comparison with the X-rays of XMM-Newton at ∼3 pc resolution shows that X-rays are enhanced toward these clouds. The CO data were combined with the Hi to estimate the total interstellar protons. A comparison of the interstellar proton column density and the X-rays revealed that the X-rays are enhanced with the total proton column density. These are most likely to be caused by the shock-cloud interaction, which is modeled by magnetohydrodynamical simulations (Inoue et al. 2012). We also note a trend for the X-ray photon index to vary with distance from the center of the high-mass star cluster. This suggests that the cosmic-ray electrons are accelerated by one or multiple supernovae in the cluster. Based on these results, we discuss the role of the interstellar medium in cosmic-ray particle acceleration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number36
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sept 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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