Arabidopsis HT1 kinase controls stomatal movements in response to CO2

Mimi Hashimoto, Juntaro Negi, Jared Young, Maria Israelsson, Julian I. Schroeder, Koh Iba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

220 Citations (Scopus)


Guard cells, which form stomata in leaf epidermes, sense a multitude of environmental signals and integrate this information to regulate stomatal movements. Compared with the advanced understanding of light and water stress responses in guard cells, the molecular mechanisms that underlie stomatal CO2 signalling have remained relatively obscure. With a high-throughput leaf thermal imaging CO2 screen, we report the isolation of two allelic Arabidopsis mutants (high leaf temperature 1; ht1-1 and ht1-2) that are altered in their ability to control stomatal movements in response to CO2. The strong allele, ht1-2, exhibits a markedly impaired CO2 response but shows functional responses to blue light, fusicoccin and abscisic acid (ABA), indicating a role for HT1 in stomatal CO2 signalling. HT1 encodes a protein kinase that is expressed mainly in guard cells. Phosphorylation assays demonstrate that the activity of the HT1 protein carrying the ht1-1 or ht1-2 mutation is greatly impaired or abolished, respectively. Furthermore, dominant-negative HT1(K113W) transgenic plants, which lack HT1 kinase activity, show a disrupted CO2 response. These findings indicate that the HT1 kinase is important for regulation of stomatal movements and its function is more pronounced in response to CO2 than it is to ABA or light.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-397
Number of pages7
JournalNature Cell Biology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cell Biology


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