Angular accuracy of plain radiographic measurements in leg alignment: Teleoroentgenogram versus orthoroentgenogram

Kenta Takakura, Yukio Akasaki, Taku Kuramoto, Yasuhiro Onizuka, Akiko Hattori, Satoshi Hamai, Hidetoshi Tsushima, Shinya Kawahara, Yasuharu Nakashima, Toyoyuki Kato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the measurements associated with leg alignment on a teleoroentgenogram and an orthoroentgenogram. Methods: The models being irradiated were manufactured and represented 10° varus and 15° varus leg alignment, in which the true values of hip-knee-ankle angle (HKAA), mechanical axis (MA) length, and percentage of MA (%MA) were already known. HKAA, MA length, and %MA were measured in various radiographic conditions of the teleoroentgenogram and orthoroentgenogram. Then, the differences between the radiographic measurement values and the corresponding true values were analyzed. Results: Regarding HKAA, the teleoroentgenogram provided accurate angular measurements with minimal differences between the measurement and true value in both the 10° and 15° varus models, irrespective of the radiographic condition. In the orthoroentgenogram, the modified method measured accurate HKAA; however, the standard method showed significant angular measurement errors with a 0.6° and 1.0° difference from the true value in the 10° and 15° varus models, respectively. This angular measurement error of HKAA in the standard orthoroentgenogram became significantly larger with object-to-image distance. Regarding MA length, the orthoroentgenogram exhibited accurate length measurements. In contrast, the teleoroentgenogram showed a significant length measurement error for the MA length. Regarding %MA, significant differences from the true values of 2.0% and 2.4% were observed in the modified orthoroentgenograms of the 10° and 15° varus models, respectively. The teleoroentgenogram and standard orthoroentgenogram reproduced the accurate measurement value of %MA in the 10° and 15° varus models. Conclusion: A teleoroentgenogram is a reliable modality for accurate angular measurements such as HKAA and %MA. An orthoroentgenogram has the potential to measure both HKAA and length accurately if the radiographic condition was modified; however, measurement error in %MA may occur.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)642-647
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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