Hormonal therapies including androgen deprivation therapy and androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors such as abiraterone and enzalutamide have been widely used to treat advanced prostate cancer. However, treatment resistance emerges after hormonal manipulation in most prostate cancers, and it is attributable to a number of mechanisms, including AR amplification and overexpression, AR mutations, the expression of constitutively active AR variants, intra-tumor androgen synthesis, and promiscuous AR activation by other factors. Although various AR mutations have been reported in prostate cancer, specific AR mutations (L702H, W742L/C, H875Y, F877L, and T878A/S) were frequently identified after treatment resistance emerged. Intriguingly, these hot spot mutations were also revealed to change the binding affinity of ligands including steroids and antiandrogens and potentially result in altered responses to AR pathway inhibitors. Currently, precision medicine utilizing genetic and genomic data to choose suitable treatment for the patient is becoming to play an increasingly important role in clinical practice for prostate cancer management. Since clinical data between AR mutations and the efficacy of AR pathway inhibitors are accumulating, monitoring the AR mutation status is a promising approach for providing precision medicine in prostate cancer, which would be implemented through the development of clinically available testing modalities for AR mutations using liquid biopsy. However, there are few reviews on clinical significance of AR hot spot mutations in prostate cancer. Then, this review summarized the clinical landscape of AR mutations and discussed their potential implication for clinical utilization.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cancer Research