Analysis on electricity use and indoor thermal environment for typical air-conditioning residential buildings in Malaysia

Naja Aqilah, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Aya Hagishima, Hom Bahadur Rijal, Fitri Yakub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


In residential buildings, accurate forecast of time-varying electricity demands is important for the estimation and prediction of electricity consumption. Information of the end user's electricity consumption patterns is necessary as it has a significant impact on the load curve in the utility grid. Thus, this study aims to provide detailed information on the electricity use and indoor thermal environment for typical residential buildings. Field measurements were conducted in 19 selected dwellings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to specifically measure the total and the air conditioner (AC) electricity usage along with the indoor thermal environment. There were significant differences in the total electricity consumption among low-, middle-, and high-income dwellings. However, for the AC electricity consumption, the different income groups do not display notable differences. This might be due to the occupant behaviour of using the air conditioner mostly during sleeping hours. The measurement results of all targeted dwellings showed that the daily averages of the total and the AC electricity consumption are 14.5 kWh/day and 3.9 kWh/day, respectively. The daily averages of the AC electricity usage in the living room and the bedroom are 2.7 kWh and 4.4 kWh, respectively. The fraction of the daily peak demand from all targeted dwellings shows that the peak at the nighttime is due to the use of the air conditioner. Moreover, the patterns of hourly indoor thermal environment showed an average of 30.1 °C (living room) and 29.3 °C (bedroom). Generally, the comfort level for the indoor temperature lies between 23 °C and 26 °C, while for relative humidity, the comfortable range is between 40% and 70%. These findings provide preliminary understanding of the detailed characteristics of residential electricity use and indoor environment in Malaysian dwellings and can be used to predict the electricity demand in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100830
JournalUrban Climate
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Urban Studies
  • Atmospheric Science


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