Analysis of hard carbon for lithium-ion batteries by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Hironobu Hori, Masahiro Shikano, Hironori Kobayashi, Shinji Koike, Hikari Sakaebe, Yoshiyasu Saito, Kuniaki Tatsumi, Hideki Yoshikawa, Eiji Ikenaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Non-graphitizable carbon (hard carbon) as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES). HX-PES spectra have peaks of both the solid electrolyte interphase on the hard carbon surface and the hard carbon itself. The change in spectrum with state of charge is observed by HX-PES. Hard carbon has two types of lithium insertion site; between graphene sheets and into nano-scale voids. These spectroscopic results are consistent with the lithium insertion mechanism into hard carbon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)844-847
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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