Alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis

Yasushi Toh, Eiji Oki, Kippei Ohgaki, Yasuo Sakamoto, Shuhei Ito, Akinori Egashira, Hiroshi Saeki, Yoshihiro Kakeji, Masaru Morita, Yoshihisa Sakaguchi, Takeshi Okamura, Yoshihiko Maehara

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

131 Citations (Scopus)


Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common incident cancer in the world and ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. Esophageal cancers are classified into two histological types; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and adenocarcinoma, and the incidences of these types show a striking variety of geographic distribution, possibly reflecting differences in exposure to specific environmental factors. Both alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are major risk factors for the development of ESCC. Acetaldehyde is the most toxic ethanol metabolite in alcohol-associated carcinogenesis, while ethanol itself stimulates carcinogenesis by inhibiting DNA methylation and by interacting with retinoid metabolism. Cigarette smoke contains more than 60 carcinogens and there are strong links between some of these carcinogens and various smoking-induced cancers; these mechanisms are well established. Synergistic effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are also observed in carcinogenesis of the upper aerodigestive tract. Of note, intensive molecular biological studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ESCC, including genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, a wide range of molecular changes is associated with ESCC, possibly because the esophagus is exposed to many kinds of carcinogens including alcohol and cigarette smoke, and it remains unclear which alterations are the most critical for esophageal carcinogenesis. This brief review summarizes the general mechanisms of alcohol- and smoking-induced carcinogenesis and then discusses the mechanisms of the development of ESCC, with special attention to alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-144
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Hematology
  • Oncology


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