Objective: The association between cigarette smoking and survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma is not well studied. We examined the impact of cigarette smoking on survival of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma using the multi-institutional national database of the Japanese Urological Association. Methods: From 340 Japanese institutions, 963 patients with renal cell carcinoma of clinical Stage 3 or higher were analyzed. Univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression models with stepwise selection was used to evaluate overall and causespecific survival. Results: Median duration of follow-up was 842 days, and overall and cancer death occurred in 392 (40.7%) and 351 (36.4%) patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, smoking 20 or more cigarettes daily at diagnosis was associated with poorer overall and cancer-specific survival, especially in Stage 3. According to a Cox proportional hazards model, heavy cigarette smoking at diagnosis and the variables of underweight, fever symptoms, serum lactic dehydrogenase value, serum C-reactive protein value, serum creatinine value, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, nephrectomy and clinical stage were significant (P < 0.05) for overall and cancer-specific survival. Conclusions: We could compare the smoking status at diagnosis and the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma at national wide scale. Heavy active smoking was an independent prognostic factor for overall and cancer-specific survival in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, especially in Stage 3.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research