A drastic environmental change for living organisms sometimes induces a new biosynthesis process as a stress-response. This article introduces some examples that are known, together with our unique fiber spinning system of plant cells. Acetobacter xylinum is a bacterium producing vinegar under an anaerobic condition, while producing and secreting cellulose nano-fibers under an aerobic condition with glucose in the media. This is an example of an adaptation against a drastic environmental change of the bacterium. The other case is that the process of cell wall formation of plants including alteration of crystalline structure of native cellulose fibers as a major cell wall component. This is considered due to the environmental difference of stress produced in differentiating growth stages, cell-expanding period and the following relatively stress-free stage. When protoplasts, which are plant cells from white birch (Betula) leaves, are cultured under the stressful conditions, a fiber spinning is induced in stead of the cell division. The fiber is composed of ß-1,3-glucan (callose) in the unique hierarchical structure. Namely, the ß-1,3-glucan chains assembled to be hollow sub-fibrils and then bundled. It indicates that the fiber spinning from the protoplasts is an adaptation for the stressful culture condition.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Chemical Engineering