A survey of elastic matching techniques for handwritten character recognition

Seiichi Uchida, Hiroaki Sakoe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a survey of elastic matching (EM) techniques employed in handwritten character recognition. EM is often called deformable template, flexible matching, or nonlinear template matching, and defined as the optimization problem of two-dimensional warping (2DW) which specifies the pixel-to-pixel correspondence between two subjected character image patterns. The pattern distance evaluated under optimized 2DW is invariant to a certain range of geometric deformations. Thus, by using the EM distance as a discriminant function, recognition systems robust to the deformations of handwritten characters can be realized. In this paper, EM techniques are classified according to the type of 2DW and the properties of each class are outlined. Several topics around EM, such as the category-dependent deformation tendency of handwritten characters, are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1781-1790
Number of pages10
JournalIEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence


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