A single shuffle is enough for secure card-based computation of any Boolean circuit

Kazumasa Shinagawa, Koji Nuida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Secure computation enables a number of players each holding a secret input value to compute a function of the inputs without revealing the inputs. It is known that secure computation is possible physically when the inputs are given as a sequence of physical cards. This research area is called card-based cryptography. One of the important problems in card-based cryptography is to minimize the number of cards and shuffles, where a shuffle is the most important (and somewhat heavy) operation in card-based protocols. In this paper, we determine the minimum number of shuffles for achieving general secure computation. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer is just one, i.e., we design a protocol which securely computes any Boolean circuit with only a single shuffle. The number of cards required for our protocol is proportional to the size of the circuit to be computed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)248-261
Number of pages14
JournalDiscrete Applied Mathematics
Publication statusPublished - Jan 31 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
  • Applied Mathematics


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