A new proof-number calculation technique for proof-number search

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a new simple calculation technique for proof numbers in Proof-Number Search. Search algorithms based on (dis)proof numbers are known to be effective for solving problems such as tsumego, tsume-shogi, and checkers. Usually, the Proof-Number Search expands child nodes with the smallest (dis)proof number because such nodes are expected to be the easiest to (dis)prove the node. However, when many unpromising child nodes exist, (dis)proof numbers are not always a suitable measure for move ordering because unpromising nodes temporarily increase the (dis)proof numbers. For such cases, we propose the use of only some child nodes (instead of all child nodes) for calculating (dis)proof numbers. We call this technique Dynamic Widening. We combined Dynamic Widening with the Depth-first Proof-Number Search (df-pn) algorithm and tested its performance on capturing problems of Go on 19×19 boards. Our results show that the approach is more than 30 times faster than normal df-pn when we generate almost all legal moves (about 300 moves on average). The required time for processing remained approximately four times as long as that of df-pn using heuristic pruning (about 20 moves on average), but the correctness of the search result is guaranteed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComputers and Games - 6th International Conference, CG 2008, Proceedings
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes
Event6th International Conference on Computers and Games, CG 2008 - Beijing, China
Duration: Sept 29 2008Oct 1 2008

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume5131 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference6th International Conference on Computers and Games, CG 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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