A “new” empirical equation to describe the strain hardening behavior of steels and other metallic materials

Avala Lavakumar, Soumya Sourav Sarangi, Venkat Chilla, D. Narsimhachary, Ranjit Kumar Ray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The strain hardening behavior of five different steels of varying carbon content, ranging between 0.007 and 0.71%, such as an Interstitial free (IF), a microalloyed, and a low, medium and high carbon steels, have been critically examined using tensile loading. The test results for the IF and the microalloyed steels having only ferritic structure, exhibit a two-stage strain hardening behavior. On the other hand, the low, medium, and high carbon steels having a two-phase microstructure (ferrite-pearlite/cementite) exhibit three-stage strain hardening. A number of existing and frequently used empirical equations, such as the Hollomon, Ludwik, Ludwigson and Voce were used to explain the strain-hardening characteristics of these steels; however, none of the above could fully and satisfactorily explain the flow behavior especially at high strain region. In order to remedy this deficiency, a modification to Ludwigson equation has been suggested by the authors by introducing an extra exponential term to the existing Ludwigson equation. The modelled flow curves, on the basis of this proposed new equation, could explain the strain hardening behavior of these steels very satisfactorily over the entire strain range. In addition, the excellent matching of the flow curves, based on the proposed equation with the experimental flow curves of a number of metallic materials, as diverse as multiphase steel, TRIP-assisted steel, dual-phase steel, stainless steel (316L), Mg-alloy, Ti-alloy and a high entropy (Cantor) alloy, indicates its wider applicability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number140641
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering: A
Publication statusPublished - Jan 20 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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