Heat transfer characteristic of a closed two-phase thermosyphon with enhanced boiling surface is studied and compared with that of a copper mirror surface. Two-phase cooling improves heat transfer coefficient (HTC) a lot compared to single-phase liquid cooling. The evaporator surfaces, coated with a pattern of hydrophobic circle spots (non-electroplating Ni-PTFE, 0.5~2 mm in diameter and 1.5-3 mm in pitch) on Cu substrates, achieve very high heat transfer coefficient and lower the incipience temperature overshoot using water as the working fluid. Sub-atmospheric boiling on the hydrophobic spot-coated surface shows a much better heat transfer performance. Tests with heat loads (30 W to 260 W) reveals the coated surfaces enhance nucleate boiling performance by increasing the bubbles nucleation sites density. Hydrophobic circle spots coated surface with diameter 1 mm, pitch 1.5 mm achieves the maximal heat transfer enhancement with the minimum boiling thermal resistance as low as 0.03 K/W. The comparison of three evaporator surfaces with same spot parameters but different coating materials is carried out experimentally. Ni-PTFE coated surface with immersion method performs the optimal performance of the thermosyphon.