A quasi-global eddying ocean hindcast simulation using a new version of our model, called OFES2 (Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator version 2), was conducted to overcome several issues with unrealistic properties in its previous version, OFES. This paper describes the model and the simulated oceanic fields in OFES2 compared with OFES and also observed data. OFES2 includes a sea-ice model and a tidal mixing scheme, is forced by a newly created surface atmospheric dataset called JRA55-do, and simulated the oceanic fields from 1958 to 2016. We found several improvements in OFES2 over OFES: smaller biases in the global sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity as well as the water mass properties in the Indonesian and Arabian seas. The time series of the Niño3.4 and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) indexes are somewhat better in OFES2 than in OFES. Unlike the previous version, OFES2 reproduces more realistic anomalously low sea surface temperatures during a positive IOD event. One possible cause of these improvements in El Niño and IOD events is the replacement of the atmospheric dataset. On the other hand, several issues remained unrealistic, such as the pathways of the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream and the unrealistic spreading of salty Mediterranean overflow. Given the worldwide use of the previous version and the improvements presented here, the output from OFES2 will be useful in studying various oceanic phenomena with broad spatiotemporal scales.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Modelling and Simulation
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)