A general, efficient method of incorporation of metal ions into ultrathin TiO2 films

Junhui He, Izumi Ichinose, Shigenori Fujikawa, Toyoki Kunitake, Aiko Nakao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


A general, efficient method was developed to incorporate a variety of second metal ions into ultrathin TiO2 films. The thin films were first prepared by the surface sol-gel process from a mixture of the matrix-forming titanium alkoxide and template magnesium alkoxide. Mg2+ ion was removed by acid/base treatment, forming highly efficient and robust ion-exchange sites. A large variety of metal ions, including alkaline, alkaline earth, transition, and rare earth elements, were then incorporated into the thin films by ion exchange with Na+. The amount of incorporation increased with increasing charge of the metal ions. The rate of the ion-exchange process was investigated in the case of Gd3+. The incorporated metal ions were immobilized by thermal treatment at 450°C. The UV absorption edge of the TiO2 film was extended to the visible region by Fe3+ doping and calcination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3493-3500
Number of pages8
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2002
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry


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