A comparative study of in vitro apatite deposition on heat-, H2O2-, and NaOH-treated titanium surfaces

Xiao Xiang Wang, Satoshi Hayakawa, Kanji Tsuru, Akiyoshi Osaka

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162 Citations (Scopus)


Commercially pure titanium specimens are subjected to three different treatments, and their bioactivity are evaluated by immersing the specimens in a simulated body fluid (SBF, Kokubo's recipe) for various periods up to 7 days, with particular attention being paid to the differences in apatite deposition between surfaces open to SBF and surfaces in contact with the container's bottom. The treatment with a H2O2/HCl solution at 80 °C for 30 min followed by heating at 400 °C for 1 h produces an anatase titania gel layer on the specimen surface. This gel layer deposits apatite both on the contact and on open surfaces, and apatite deposition ability does not change with pre-staking in distilled water. The treatment with a NaOH solution at 60 °C for 3 days produces a sodium titanate gel layer. This gel layer can deposit apatite only on the contact surface, and the apatite deposition ability is completely lost after 1 day of pre-staking in distilled water. It is concluded, therefore, that the bioactivity of the titania gel originates from the favorable structure of the gel itself while the bioactivity of the sodium titanate gel depends heavily on ion release from the gel. The third treatment, a simple heat treatment at 400 °C for 1 h, produces a dense (not porous) oxide layer on the specimen surface. The specimens can deposit apatite on the contact surface after only 3 days of staking in SBF, but they cannot deposit apatite on the open surface for up to 2 months of staking. The implications of such apatite deposition behavior have been discussed in relation to the environments of titanium implants in bone as well as to the methodology of the SBF staking experiment. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)172-178
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2001

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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