1,5-anhydro-d-fructose protects against rotenone-induced neuronal damage in vitro through mitochondrial biogenesis

Yuki Kasamo, Kiyoshi Kikuchi, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Shotaro Otsuka, Seiya Takada, Yuki Kambe, Takashi Ito, Ko Ichi Kawahara, Kazunori Arita, Koji Yoshimoto, Ikuro Maruyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Mitochondrial functional abnormalities or quantitative decreases are considered to be one of the most plausible pathogenic mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thus, mitochondrial complex inhibitors are often used for the development of experimental PD. In this study, we used rotenone to create in vitro cell models of PD, then used these models to investigate the effects of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5-AF), a monosaccharide with protective effects against a range of cytotoxic substances. Subsequently, we investigated the possible mechanisms of these protective effects in PC12 cells. The protection of 1,5-AF against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity was confirmed by increased cell viability and longer dendritic lengths in PC12 and primary neuronal cells. Furthermore, in rotenone-treated PC12 cells, 1,5-AF upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) expression and enhanced its deacetylation, while increasing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. 1,5-AF treatment also increased mitochondrial activity in these cells. Moreover, PGC-1α silencing inhibited the cytoprotective and mitochondrial biogenic effects of 1,5-AF in PC12 cells. Therefore, 1,5-AF may activate PGC-1α through AMPK activation, thus leading to mitochondrial biogenic and cytoprotective effects. Together, our results suggest that 1,5-AF has therapeutic potential for development as a treatment for PD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9941
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of '1,5-anhydro-d-fructose protects against rotenone-induced neuronal damage in vitro through mitochondrial biogenesis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this